by Chelsea Lee and Jeff Hume-Pratuch
In this post you will learn how to present data gathered during surveys or interviews with research participants that you conducted as part of your research. You may be surprised to learn that although you can discuss your interview and survey data in a paper, you should not cite them. Here’s why.
Retrievability Versus Confidentiality
In APA Style, all sources must provide retrievable data. Because one purpose of references is to lead the reader to the source, both the reference entry and the in-text citation begin with the name of the author. But rules for the ethical reporting of human research data prohibit researchers from revealing “confidential, personally identifiable information concerning their patients, . . . research participants, or other recipients of their services” (APA Publication Manual [PM]; 6th ed., § 1.11, p. 16; APA Ethics Code, Standard 4.07). In other words, you must prevent the reader from identifying the source of information.
In this clash of principles, which one should triumph? The value of protecting participants’ confidentiality must always win out. “Subject privacy . . . should never be sacrificed for clinical or scientific accuracy” (PM § 1.11)—not even for APA Style.
Strategies for the Discussion of Research Participant Data
Although you don’t cite data you gathered from research participants, you can discuss them, provided that you preserve the confidentiality you guaranteed the participants when they consented to participate in your study (see PM § 1.11). In practical terms, this means that “neither the subject nor third parties (e.g., family members, employers) are identifiable” (PM, p. 17) from the information presented.
Strategies for the ethical use of data from research participants include the following:
- referring to participants by identifiers other than their names, such as
- their roles (e.g., participant, doctor, patient),
- pseudonyms or nicknames,
- descriptive phrases,
- case numbers, or
- letters of the alphabet;
- altering certain participant characteristics in your discussion of the participants (e.g., make the characteristics more general, such as saying “European” instead of “French”);
- leaving out unimportant identifying details about the participant;
- adding extraneous material to obscure case details; and
- combining the statements of several participants into a “composite” participant.
Choose the strategy that makes sense given the degree of confidentiality of information you must maintain and what details are important to relate to the reader. Keep in mind that in employing these strategies it is essential that you not “change variables that would lead the reader to draw false conclusions related to the phenomena being described” (PM,p. 17).
Examples of How to Discuss Research Participant Data
Here are a few examples of how participant data might be presented in the text. The most appropriate presentation will depend on context.
- One respondent stated she had never experienced a level of destruction similar to that caused by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
- “Madge,” a 45-year-old Red Cross social worker, was in Sichuan province when the earthquake struck. “It was unlike anything else I have experienced,” she said.
- MJ, a European social worker, said the earthquake was “unlike anything else I have experienced.”
- A non-Chinese social worker said the 2008 Sichuan earthquake “exceeded levels of devastation I have ever seen before.”
- Case 24 was injured in the earthquake.
- Participant M said she had never experienced anything like the earthquake or its level of devastation.
- Several employees of a humanitarian aid organization said that they were emotionally distressed by the devastation the earthquake left behind.
Data can also be presented in a table or figure provided these same standards are abided by.
Going on the Record
If the research participant is willing to go "on the record," or include his or her name in the paper, use a personal communication citation (see PM § 6.20). In that case, you should write up the material you intend to use, present it to the participant, and get his or her written permission before including it (see PM § 1.11). In your paper, the information might be presented as follows:
- M. Johnson (personal communication, May 16, 2008), a Red Cross social worker who assisted in the Sichuan earthquake recovery efforts, stated that “the earthquake exceeded levels of devastation I have ever seen before.”
The issues surrounding participant privacy in research reporting are complex and exceed what can be presented in this post. For further reading, consult the APA Publication Manual (6th ed., § 1.11) as well as the APA Ethics Code.
The sources part of an APA reference list are only those that are traceable, and can be used by others. Because a personal interview does not constitute recoverable data, it should not be included in an APA reference list. Instead a personal interview should be referenced as a parenthetical citation. For example: (J. Smith, personal communication, May 17, 2008).
If you would like to include a personal interview as part of your APA reference list, then include the interviewee, the date of the interview, and the type of interview. See the fictional examples below:
Personal interview by phone
Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Telephone interview.
Personal interview by email
Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Email interview.
Personal interview in person
Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Personal interview.
Personal interview overheard and conducted by a third party
Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Personal interview with K. Walter & J. Smith.