Bio 1100 Final Essay Questions

  • 1. 

    What does DNA ligase do during DNA replication?

    • A. 

      Seals the hydrogen bonds between the 2 strands of DNA

    • B. 

      Breaks the hydrogen bonds between the 2 strand of DNA

    • C. 

      Seals the nicks in the sugar-phosphate bonds of one of the new DNA strands

    • D. 

      Seals the nicks in the sugar-phosphate bonds of one of the old DNA strands

  • 2. 

    To determine whether a field of study is a science, you would

    • A. 

      Consider what questions are asked

    • B. 

      Consider what methods are used

    • C. 

      Consider what conclusions are made.

    • D. 

      Look for people wearing lab coats.

  • 3. 

    Strictly speaking, DNA replication leads to

    • A. 

      2 new copies of each DNA molecule

    • B. 

      1 new copy and one old copy of each DNA molecule

    • C. 

      2 copies of each DNA molecule that are each half old and half new

    • D. 

      2 copies of each DNA molecule that are both old

  • 4. 

    What does recombinant DNA technology refer to?

    • A. 

      The process that produces a DNA fingerprint from a blood sample.

    • B. 

      The process of cloning an individual.

    • C. 

      The process of inserting gene from one organism into another

    • D. 

      The process of identifying a gene sequence

  • 5. 

    Which BEST describes why an allele is recessive?

    • A. 

      Recessive alleles are weak alleles

    • B. 

      Recessive alleles make no funtional gene product

    • C. 

      Recessive alleles are mutated forms of dominant alleles

    • D. 

      Recessive alleles are rare.

  • 6. 

    When there are 2 alleles for a gene and both make a protein product the alleles are said to be

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 7. 

    What is the name of the enzymes which cut DNA only at a specific sequences?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 8. 

    A set if ideas that explain a broad set of observations is a

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 9. 

    Which one of the following characteristics is not necessary in order for an object to be considered living?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

      Ability to respond to stimuli

  • 10. 

    The nucleotide that is found in RNA but not DNA is

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 11. 

    How does Gel Electrophoresis work.

    • A. 

      A sample of DNA is added to a gel which binds the molecue together. The DNA fragments of different sizes are spliced together.

    • B. 

      A sample of DNA is added to a gel and exposed to a cureent. The DNA is attracted to the charge and different sized fragments of DNA are sperated.

    • C. 

      The sample of DNA is repeadedly heated and cooled in the presence of DNA polymerase and free nucleotides. Many copies of the fragments of DNA are produced.

    • D. 

      A sample of DNA is added to a gel which holds the fragments in place. In this way, fragment of different length can be distinguished.

  • 12. 

    When geneticists speak of mutation, they are referring to

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

      A change in the DNA sequence

    • D. 

      A change in the amino acid sequence

  • 13. 

    Why are DNA fingerprints useful?

    • A. 

      When a sample of DNA is cut up with restriction enzymes and seperated by gel electrophoresis, the result is unique for each individual.

    • B. 

      The impression left behind by a DNA sample is unique for each individual.

    • C. 

      When a sample of DNA is compared to an individual's fingerprints, you can distinguish among individuals.

    • D. 

      When a sample of DNA is amplified with PCR and mixed with DNA Polymerase, a unique set of fragments are produced for each individual.

  • 14. 

    Natural Selection may be BEST defined as

    • A. 

      A difference between populations

    • B. 

      A difference between individuals

    • C. 

      A difference in survival between individuals

    • D. 

      A difference in reproduction between individuals

  • 15. 

    What is an example of a trait

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

      Enzyme production in a fungus

    • E. 

  • 16. 

    Nuclear transfer was the cloning technique used to produce the sheep Dolly. Which best describes nuclear transfer?

    • A. 

      The nucleus of an egg and sperm are transfered into a donor egg

    • B. 

      The chromosomes are removed from a an egg and replaced by the chromosomes from an adult cell

    • C. 

      The chromosomes from an egg are mixed with the chromosomes from an adult cell

    • D. 

      Selected chromosomes are transfered to the nucleus of an egg

    • E. 

      The nucleus of a fertilized egg is transferred to a donor egg

  • 17. 

    What is necessary for natural selection to lead to evolution

    • A. 

      Individuals have different traits

    • B. 

      Traits affect reproduction

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 18. 

    According to question 18, what is true about the type of cloning discussed in the previous question?

    • A. 

      The technique requires that the egg develops in a female's uterus

    • B. 

      The technique leads to the production of a newborn infant animal

    • C. 

      The clone would be a younger identical twin to the donor of the DNA.

    • D. 

  • 19. 

    In a population of long-tailed weasels in central Missouri, individuals that turn white in the winter are rare. Individual weasels that turn white in winter are much more common in the northern part of the weasel's range. This appears to be an example of

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 20. 

    What enzyme is necessary to voncert an RNA sequence back to it's complememntary DNA sequence

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 21. 

    When dogs become overheated, they pant. During panting, blood flow to the tounge increases and this circulates heat from the center of their body to where it can be dissipated. This is an example of

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 22. 

    Over the past 5 years, the number of acres planted in genetically modified crops has

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 23. 

    On page five of your textbook, there is a story about African dung beetles and elephants. We have similar dung beetles here in MO. Suppose you encountered one of these beetles rolling a ball of cow dung across a pasture. You are eager to explain, using the scientific method, why these beetles are rolling ball of cow manure. Your first step is to come up with a(n)

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

  • 24. 

    Three of the following are hypotheses concerning the dung beetle's behavior, select the exception.

    • A. 

      The dung beetles store the balls of dung to feed on later.

    • B. 

      The dung beetles lay eggs in the balls of dung and young will eat the dung when they hatch.

    • C. 

      Only female dung beetles roll balls of dung.

    • D. 

      Only female dung beetles roll balls of dung

    • E. 

      The dung beetles use the balls of dung to construct nests.

  • 25. 

    You hypothesize that dung beetles lay eggs in the balls of dung and the young hatch and feed on the dung. Three of the following are reasonable predictions concerning your hypothesis, select the exception

    • A. 

      If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung, the they will only roll balls of dung during daylight

    • B. 

      If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung, then balls of dung placed in a container will hatch baby dung beetles

    • C. 

      If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung, then most of the beetles rolling dung will be females.

    • D. 

      If dung beetles are laying eggs in the dung then dung rolling will be most common during the breeding season.

  • Essay Questions for Final Exam in Biology 100 (Web biology) 1. Explain the theory of evolution as Darwin proposed it. Use the fact that many bacterial strains are now resistant to antibiotics as an example to support Darwin’s theory. Construct an experiment using bacteria that would demonstrate the idea of “survival of the fittest”. Darwin’s theory of evolution is based on the premise that all organisms share a common ancestor and that we diversified over time. The primary mechanism of change over time is natural selection. The mechanism causes changes in the properties (traits) of organisms within lineages from generation to generation. Antibiotic resistance can evolve naturally via natural selection through random mutation. When exposed to antibiotics, most bacteria die quickly, but some may have mutations that make them slightly less susceptible. If the exposure to antibiotic is short, these individuals will survive the treatment. The surviving bacteria will then reproduce, producing the next generation. Due to elimination of the “weak” specimens in the past generation, this generation contains more bacteria that have some resistance against the antibiotics. Given enough time and repeated exposure to the antibiotics, a population of antibiotic resistance bacteria will emerge. 2. Pretend that you are Robert Hooke and tell the story of your discovery of the cell to your grandchildren. Cells are like your blocks, they are the building blocks of life. People have cells. Horses, dogs, cats, spiders, birds, mosquitoes, trees, flowers do too. All living organisms are made from cells. These cells are very small. Almost all single-celled organisms are too small to see with your naked eye, but we can see them clearly with a microscope. Your Grandpa was the first one to every notice them. I was using my microscope and studying a piece of cork. Did you know that a cork is actually part of a tree? When I looked at the cork it looked like the inside of the house. I could see this network of what looked like tiny rooms. It reminded me of the rooms that Father Sebastian and the other monks live in at the monastery. They call their rooms “cells” and that’s what I decided to call them.

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