Consort Checklist Cover Letter

Pediatrics is the official peer-reviewed journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics publishes original research, clinical observations, and special feature articles in the field of pediatrics, as broadly defined. Contributions pertinent to pediatrics also include related fields such as nutrition, surgery, dentistry, public health, child health services, human genetics, basic sciences, psychology, psychiatry, education, sociology, and nursing.

Pediatrics considers unsolicited manuscripts in the following categories: reports of original research, particularly clinical research; review articles; special articles; and case reports. When preparing a manuscript for Pediatrics, authors must first determine the manuscript type and then prepare the manuscript according to the specific instructions below.

The electronic edition of Pediatrics is the journal of record. Some accepted article types may also be presented in full in print, in addition to the electronic edition of Pediatrics.

 

Acceptance Criteria

Relevance to readers is of primary importance in manuscript selection. The readership includes general and specialist pediatricians, pediatric researchers and educators, and child health policy-makers. Pediatrics receives many more high quality manuscripts than can be accommodated based on our available space. The current acceptance rate is approximately 10%. An article that is thought by the editors to be not relevant to readers, outside of scope or very unlikely to be accepted may be rejected without review. All manuscripts considered for publication are peer reviewed. Peer reviewers are selected by the editors based on their expertise in the topic of the manuscript; generally at least 2 reviews are required before a decision is rendered. Authors may suggest appropriate reviewers and may also suggest reviewers who should not review the manuscript.

Authors should carefully follow instructions for manuscript preparation, and ensure that the manuscript is proofread before submission. Manuscripts that do not adhere to the author instructions will not be considered for review. Careless preparation of a manuscript suggests careless execution of the research and therefore makes acceptance unlikely. Manuscripts are scanned for plagiarism using the latest software; if potential plagiarism is detected, the editors will contact the authors for clarification, and may also contact the authors’ institution.

Submissions of original research are judged on the importance and originality of the research, scientific strength, clinical relevance, the clarity of the manuscript, and the number of submissions on the same topic. Pediatrics does not publish manuscripts that involve animal research.

Pediatrics accepts review articles, with preference given to systematic reviews, which may include meta-analyses. State-of-the-Art Review Articles and Perspectives are generally solicited by the editors or the associate editors for their respective sections. Special Articles reflect topics or issues of relevance to pediatric health care that do not conform to a traditional study format. Case Reports must challenge an existing clinical or pathophysiologic paradigm; provide a starting point for novel hypothesis-testing clinical research; and/or focus on topics pertinent to the pediatric generalist. Quality Reports provide a venue for manuscripts that describe the implementation and outcome of quality-improvement projects.  Authors should review and follow the comprehensive reporting guidelines for a wide variety of study designs that are available at http://www.equator-network.org/home/.

Authors submitting manuscripts involving adverse drug or medical device events or product problems should also report these to the appropriate governmental agency.

Unsolicited commentaries will be considered for publication; however, most commentaries are solicited by the editors. Responses to a published article should be submitted as online comments; selected comments may be considered for publication in the journal as Letters to the Editor.

Incorrect grammar, language use, or syntax may distract readers from the science being communicated and may lead to less favorable reviews. To help reduce this possibility, we strongly encourage authors to have their manuscripts reviewed for clarity by colleagues. If the authors’ native language is not English, we strongly encourage review and editing by a colleague whose native language is English or the use of an English language editing service.

Peer reviewers are asked to assess each manuscript for originality; for interest to scientists, practitioners and policy makers; for quality of the analysis; and for quality of the presentation, and are asked to assess the priority of the paper for publication. After the reviews are received, the editors may take one of the following actions: Accept; Accept with Revisions; Reject with option to Resubmit; or Reject. A rejected manuscript may not be resubmitted. A manuscript may be rejected with an option to resubmit when additional data or analyses are requested by reviewers, or when extensive revision of the text is needed. The resubmitted manuscript receives an additional round of peer review (which may include new reviewers), and the manuscript may or may not be accepted. A decision of Accept with Revision indicates that the editors intend to accept the manuscript contingent on adequate response to reviewers. A decision of Accept (which is exceedingly rare on first submission) indicates that the manuscript is ready to place into production without further modification. Decisions by the editors are final.

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Publication Ethics

Authorship. An “author” is someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. Each author is required to meet ALL FOUR of the following criteria:

  1. Substantial contribution(s) to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; and
  2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
  3. Final approval of the version to be published, and
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

NOTE: Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute a sufficient basis for authorship.

All persons listed as authors must meet these criteria, and all persons who meet these criteria must be listed as authors. Although Pediatrics does not specifically limit the number of authors (except for Case Reports), articles submitted with an unusual number of authors invite scrutiny by editors and reviewers for clear justification for the presence of each person on the authorship list. Pediatrics does not permit a statement of equal contribution or joint authorship (eg, two first authors, or two senior authors).

Decide authorship issues, including the order, before submission. Except in instances where the editorial office has determined that a person does not qualify for authorship, Pediatrics does not allow changes to the author order, including adding or removing authors from a paper or any subsequent revisions.

Conflict of Interest and Disclosure. After a paper is accepted by Pediatrics for publication, all authors must submit conflict of interest and disclosure forms. Pediatrics adheres to the policy and uses the standardized disclosure form of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The collection of the forms is automated within the online system.

IRB Approval. All studies that involve human subjects must be approved or deemed exempt by an official institutional review board; this should be noted in the Methods section of the manuscript.

Industry Sponsorship. Pediatrics generally does not accept reports of studies in which all authors are employed by a commercial entity with a financial interest in the results of the study.

Registration of Clinical Trials. All clinical trials must be registered in a World Health organization-approved Clinical Trial registry prior to enrollment of the first subject. The registry name and registration number should be included on the title page. Reports of unregistered trials will be returned to authors without review. Publication of the results of a trial that was initiated prior to the ICMJE requirement for trial registration will be considered by the editors on a case-by-case basis.

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Journal Style

All aspects of the manuscript, including the formatting of tables, illustrations, and references and grammar, punctuation, usage, and scientific writing style, should be prepared according to the most current AMA Manual of Style (http://www.amamanualofstyle.com).1

Author Listing. All authors’ names should be listed in their entirety, and should include institutional/professional affiliations and degrees held.

Authoring Groups. If you choose to include an organization, committee, team, or any other group as part of your author list, you must include the names of the individuals as part of the Acknowledgments section of your manuscript. This section should appear after the main text prior to your References section. The terms “for” or “on behalf of” must also be used when referencing the authoring group in the by-line.

Titles.  Pediatrics generally follows the guidelines of the AMA Manual of Style for titles. Titles should be concise and informative, containing the key topics of the work. Declarative sentences are discouraged as they tend to overemphasize a conclusion, as are questions, which are more appropriate for editorials and commentaries. Subtitles, if used, should expand on the title; however, the title should be able to stand on its own. It is appropriate to include the study design (“Randomized Controlled Trial”; “Prospective Cohort Study”, etc.) in subtitles. The location of a study should be included only when the results are unique to that location and not generalizable. Abbreviations and acronyms should be avoided. The full title will appear on the article, the inside table of contents, and in MEDLINE. Full titles are limited to 97 characters, including spaces. Short titles must be provided as well and are limited to 55 characters, including spaces. Short titles may appear on the cover of the journal as space permits in any given issue.

Abbreviations. List and define abbreviations on the Title Page. Unusual abbreviations should be avoided. All terms to be abbreviated in the text should also be spelled out at first mention, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. The abbreviation may appear in the text thereafter. Abbreviations may be used in the abstract if they occur 3 or more times in the abstract. Abbreviations should be avoided in tables and figures; if used they should be redefined in footnotes.

Units of Measure. Like many US-based journals, Pediatrics uses a combination of Système International (SI)2,3 and conventional units. Please see the AMA Manual of Style for details.

Proprietary Products. Authors should use nonproprietary names of drugs or devices unless mention of a trade name is pertinent to the discussion. If a proprietary product is cited, the name and location of the manufacturer must also be included.

References. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references. Citations should be numbered in the order in which they appear in the text. Reference style should follow that of the AMA Manual of Style, current edition. Abbreviated journal names should reflect the style of Index Medicus. Visit: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html

References

  1. Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.
  2. Lundberg GD. SI unit implementation: the next step. JAMA. 1988;260:73-76.
  3. Système International conversion factors for frequently used laboratory components. JAMA. 1991;266:45-47.

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Clinical Trials

A study is considered a clinical trial if it prospectively assigns human subjects (whether randomized or not) to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Medical interventions include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, and the like.

If authors report the results of a clinical trial, they must affirm that the study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov or another WHO-approved national or international registry prior to the enrollment of the first subject. Information on requirements and appropriate registries is available at www.icmje.org. The trial registration number must be listed on the title page, and at the end of the abstract.

Authors are required to complete both pages of a CONSORT Form (flowchart and checklist) and submit these with their manuscript. In our submission system, these files appear under “Instructions and Forms”. For observational epidemiological studies, follow the appropriate STROBE checklist.

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Reuse of Data Sets

If a manuscript uses the same or similar data contained in previously published articles, the authors must state this in the cover letter (and provide citations to the related or possibly duplicative materials).

If a separate manuscript by the same authors using the same data set is under review or accepted but not yet published in another journal, the authors must state this in the cover letter and provide enough information to assure that the manuscript submitted to Pediatrics is not duplicative.

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Formatting Requirements

All submissions must adhere to the following format:

  • Times New Roman font, size 12, black
  • Title Page, Contributors' Statement Page, Abstract, Acknowledgments,
    and References should be single-spaced
  • Only the Main Body Text should be double-spaced
  • Main Submission Document as Microsoft Word or RTF file (no PDFs)
  • Do not include page headers, footers, or line numbers in new submissions.
  • Do not include footnotes within the manuscript body. Footnotes are allowed only in tables/figures.

Refer to the “Article Types” section for specific guidelines on preparing a manuscript in each category. Note in particular the requirements regarding abstracts for different categories of article.

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Title Page

The “title page” should appear first in your manuscript document, and depending on the individual needs of a paper may encompass more than one page.

Title pages for all submissions must include the following items (as shown in the sample Title Page):

  1. Title (97 characters [including spaces] or fewer)
  2. Author listing. Full names for all authors, including degrees, and institutional/professional affiliations. These affiliations should list the institution where the research presented in the article took place; if the affiliation has changed, add a note indicating the additional affiliation.
  3. Corresponding Author. Contact information for the Corresponding Author (including: name, address, telephone, and e-mail). Again, note that the affiliation should list the institution where the research presented in the article took place; if the affiliation has changed, add a note indicating the additional affiliation.
  4. Short title (55 characters [including spaces] or fewer). Please note: the short title may be used on the cover of the print edition.
  5. Financial Disclosure Statement for all authors. Disclose any financial relationships that could be broadly relevant to the work. If none, say “Financial Disclosure: The authors have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.”
  6. Funding source. Research or project support, including internal funding, should be listed here; if the project was done with no specific support, please note that here. Technical and other assistance should be identified in Acknowledgments. If your funding body has open access requirements, please contact the Editorial Office prior to submission. Pediatrics has a 12 month embargo on articles (followed by a 4 year open access period) and does not allow articles to be opened for Creative Commons or similar licenses.
  7. Conflict of Interest Statement for all authors. If none, say “Potential Conflicts of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article to disclose.”
  8. If applicable, Clinical Trial registry name and registration number. We adhere to ICMJE guidelines, which require that all trials must be registered with ClinicalTrials.gov or any other WHO Primary registry.
  9. Abbreviations. List and define abbreviations used in the text. If none, say "Abbreviations: none".
  10. Table of Contents Summary. All articles with abstracts require this summary. This brief summary is limited to 25 words. For accepted manuscripts, this will appear under the author names in the table of contents to give the reader a brief insight into what the article is about. It should entice the reader to read the full article. For example: "Through linkage of state Medicaid and Child Protective Services databases, this study captures similarities and differences in health care expenditures based on a history of child maltreatment."
  11. For Regular Article submissions, include both the “What’s Known on This Subject" and the "What This Study Adds” summaries (see below under Regular Article type for description). These are not needed for any other article type.

If a title page does not include all of the above items, the submission may be returned to the authors for completion.

  • Download and view a sample Title Page (PDF) here.

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Contributors' Statement Page

All submissions (excluding Commentaries) must contain a Contributors’ Statement Page, directly following the Title Page(s) and in the specific format described below. Manuscripts lacking a properly formatted Contributors' Statement Page will be returned to the authors for correction.

All persons designated as authors must qualify for authorship (see "Publication Ethics" above), and all those who qualify should be listed. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. The Contributors' Statement Page lists the authors and specifies the contribution(s) made by each individual. If multiple individuals have identical contributions they may be listed together; do not list an author more than once.

You must follow the required format when creating your Contributors’ Statement Page or your manuscript will be returned for correction:

  • Each author should only appear once.
  • Use names, not initials.
  • If multiple authors have identical contributions, you can list them in the same sentence; otherwise, list each author separately.

Sample Contributors' Statement:

Dr Smith and Prof Jones conceptualized and designed the study, drafted the initial manuscript, and reviewed and revised the manuscript.
Drs Brown, Grey, and Black and Ms Johnson designed the data collection instruments, collected data, carried out the initial analyses, and reviewed and revised the manuscript.
Dr Green conceptualized and designed the study, coordinated and supervised data collection, and critically reviewed the manuscript for important intellectual content.
All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

Note: Contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship (such as persons who helped recruit patients for the study, or professional editors) should be listed in an Acknowledgments section placed after the manuscript’s conclusion and before the References section. Because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions, these persons must give written permission to be acknowledged. These permissions do not need to be submitted with the manuscript unless requested by the editors.

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Word Count

To determine article length, count the body of the manuscript (from the start of the Introduction to the end of the Conclusion). The title page, contributors' statement page, abstract, acknowledgments, references, figures, tables, and multimedia are not included.

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Figures, Tables, and Supplementary Material

Figures

Authors should number figures in the order in which they appear in the text. Figures include graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations. Each figure must include a legend (placed on the figure itself or as a list appearing after the References) that does not exceed 50 words. Abbreviations previously expanded in the text are acceptable. If a figure is reproduced from another source, authors are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder, and proof of permission must be uploaded at the time of submission.

Figure arrays should be clearly labeled, preassembled, and submitted to scale. Figure parts of an array (A, B, C, etc.) should be clearly marked in capital letters in the upper left-hand corner of each figure part.

Technical requirements for figures: The following file types are acceptable: TIFF, PDF, EPS, and PNG. Color files must be in CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) mode.

Style for figures:  Readers should be able to understand figures without referring to the text. Avoid pie charts, 3-dimensional graphs, and excess ink in general. Make sure that the axes on graphs are labeled, including units of measurement, and that the font is large enough to read. Generally delete legends or other material from the graph if it makes the picture smaller. Color graphs should be interpretable if photocopied in black and white.

Pediatrics cannot accept Excel or PowerPoint files for any part of your submission.

There is no maximum number for figures or tables.

 

Tables

Tables should be numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text and include appropriate headers. Tables should not reiterate information presented in the Results section, but rather should provide clear and concise data that further illustrate the main point. Tabular data should directly relate to the hypothesis. Table formatting should follow the current edition of the AMA Manual of Style.

Style for tables:  Tables should be self-explanatory. Avoid abbreviations; define any abbreviations in footnotes to the table. Avoid excess digits and excess ink in general. Where possible, rows should be in a meaningful order (e.g., descending order of frequency). Provide units of measurement for all numbers. In general, only one type of data should be in each column of the table.

Presentation of Numbers and Statistics

  • Results in the abstract and the paper generally should include estimates of effect size and 95% confidence intervals, not just P- values or statements that a difference was statistically significant.
  • Statistical methods for obtaining all P-values should be provided
  • Units of independent variables must be provided in tables and results sections if regression coefficients are provided
  • Authors should avoid expressing effect sizes in the form of highly derived statistics.

Equations should be typed exactly as they are to appear in the final manuscript. The following table, adapted from the guidelines for authors for the Annals of Internal Medicine by editors of Medical Decision Making, shows how to present certain percentages and some statistical measures:

Reporting:Details:
Percentages

Report percentages to one decimal place (i.e., xx.x%) when sample size is greater than or equal to 200.

To avoid the appearance of a level of precision that is not present with small samples, do not use decimal places (i.e., xx%, not xx.x%) when sample size is less than 200.

Error Measures

Report confidence intervals, rather than standard errors, when possible. Use "mean (error measures)" rather than "mean ± error measure" notation.

 

P values

Except when one-sided tests are required by study design, such as in noninferiority trials, all reported P values should be two-sided. In general, P values larger than 0.01 should be reported to two decimal places, those between 0.01 and 0.001 to three decimal places; P values smaller than 0.001 should be reported as P [is less than sign]0.001. Notable exceptions to this policy include P values arising in the application of stopping rules to the analysis of clinical trials and genetic-screening studies.

 

"Trend"

Use the word trend when describing a test for trend or dose-response.

Avoid the term "trend" when referring to p-values near but not below 0.05. In such instances, simply report a difference and the confidence interval of the difference (if appropriate) with or without the p-value.

 

Supplemental Information

Authors may wish to include additional information as part of their article for inclusion in the online edition of Pediatrics. References to any online supplemental information must appear in the main article. Such supplemental information can include but are not limited to additional tables, figures, videos, audio files, slide shows, data sets (including qualitative data), and online appendices. If your study is based on a survey, consider submitting your survey instrument or the key questions as a data supplement. Authors are responsible for clearly labeling supplemental information and are accountable for its accuracy. Supplemental information will be peer reviewed, but not professionally copyedited.

 

Videos

Pediatrics encourages the submission of videos to accompany articles where relevant. Links can be placed in the article for use when it is accessed electronically. All videos must adhere to the same general permission rules that apply to figures (i.e.: parental consent when a patient is identifiable).

All videos should be submitted at the desired reproduction size and length. To avoid excessive delays in downloading the files, videos should be no more than 6MB in size, and run between 30 and 60 seconds in length. In addition, cropping frames and image sizes can significantly reduce file sizes. Files submitted can be looped to play more than once, provided file size does not become excessive. Video format must be either .mov or .mp4.

Authors will be notified if problems exist with videos as submitted, and will be asked to modify them if needed. No editing will be done to the videos at the editorial office—all changes are the responsibility of the author.

Video files should be named clearly to correspond with the figure they represent (i.e., figure1.mov, figure2.mp4, etc.). Be sure all video files have filenames that are no more than 8 characters long and include the suffix “.mov” or ".mp4." A caption for each video should be provided (preferably in a similarly named Word file submitted with the videos), stating clearly the content of the video presentation and its relevance to the materials submitted.

IMPORTANT: One to four traditional still images from the video must be provided. These still images may be published with the article and will act as thumbnail images in the electronic edition that will link to the full video file. Please indicate clearly in your text whether a figure has a video associated with it, and be sure to indicate the name of the corresponding video file. A brief figure legend should also be provided.

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Regular Article

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (structured, as noted below)
Article length: 3,000 words or fewer

Regular Articles are original research contributions that aim to inform clinical practice or the understanding of a disease process. Regular Articles include but are not limited to clinical trials, interventional studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, and surveys. Components of a Regular Article include:

  • What’s Known on This Subject
  • What This Study Adds

These two brief summaries are each limited to 40 words. Please use precise and accurate language in paragraph form (i.e., not bullet points). For manuscripts accepted as Regular Articles, these summaries will become a highly visible part of your published paper, with prominence on the first page. Moreover, these summaries may be highlighted and presented in other areas of the journal. It is therefore paramount that you use language of the same caliber as the rest of your paper.

  • Structured Abstract (four paragraphs with headings in boldface type; single-spaced)

The abstract should consist of: Background (or Objectives, or Background and Objectives), Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The Objective should clearly state the hypothesis; Methods, inclusion criteria and study design; Results, the outcome of the study; and Conclusions, the outcome in relation to the hypothesis and possible directions of future study.

For the body of your article, follow this general outline:

A 1- to 2-paragraph introduction outlining the wider context that generated the study and the hypothesis.

This section should detail inclusion criteria and study design to ensure reproducibility of the research. All studies that involve human subjects must be approved or deemed exempt by an official institutional review board; this should be noted here.

This section should give specific answers to the aims or questions stated in the introduction.  The order of presentation of results should parallel the order of the methods section.

The section should highlight antecedent literature on the topic and how the current study changes the understanding of a disease process or clinical situation, and should include a section on the limitations of the present study.

A brief concluding paragraph presenting the implications of the study results and possible new research directions on the subject.

General submission instructions (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) apply to Regular Articles.

  • Download and view a sample Regular Article manuscript (PDF) here.

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Case Report

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph)
Article length: 1,600 words or fewer
Author limit: Seven (7) authors or fewer

Case Reports highlight unique presentations or aspects of disease processes that may expand the differential diagnosis and improve patient care. In general, case reports will include 10 cases or fewer. For a manuscript to be considered a Case Report, it must meet at least one of the following three criteria:

  1. Challenge an existing clinical or pathophysiologic paradigm.
  2. Provide a starting point for novel hypothesis-testing clinical research.
  3. Focus on topics pertinent to the pediatric generalist, allowing pediatrics colleagues to provide improved care. (Manuscripts meeting this criterion will be prioritized over other submissions.)

Case Reports should consist of an unstructured abstract that summarizes the case(s), a brief introduction (recommended length, 1-2 paragraphs), a section that details patient presentation, initial diagnosis and outcome, as well as a discussion that includes a brief review of the relevant literature and describes how this case brings new understanding to the disease process.

Authors may find the criteria for case reports as contained in the CARE guidelines useful in preparing their manuscript.

The general submission instructions (including cover letter, title page, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Case Reports.

  • Download and view a sample Case Report manuscript (PDF) here.

References

  1. J of Clin Epidem. Vol. 67, 1, pg 46-51

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Commentary

Abstract length: no abstract
Article length: 400 to 800 words

Commentaries are opinion pieces consisting of a main point and supporting discussion. These contributions usually pertain to and are published concurrently with a specific article; the commentary serves to launch a broader discussion of a topic. Commentaries may address general issues or controversies in the field of pediatrics.

Commentaries are solicited by the editors. Unsolicited opinion pieces are published as Pediatrics Perspectives.Responses to published articles should be submitted as online Comments.

The general submission instructions (including cover letter, title page, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements, also apply to commentaries); commentaries do not require a Contributors' Statement Page.

  • Download and view a sample Commentary manuscript (PDF) here.

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Diagnostic Dilemmas and Clinical Reasoning

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph)
NOTE: Abstracts must not reveal the final diagnosis

Article length: 3,500 words or fewer

Author limit: Seven (7) authors or fewer

Diagnostic Dilemmas and Clinical Reasoning articles are interactive case studies, with comments inserted by generalists and specialists asked to comment on the case, simulating what might occur in an oral case presentation.

The goal of this feature is to present clinical cases that are diagnostic dilemmas and that involve the input of both generalists and subspecialists who comment as segments of the case are presented, similar to Ethics Rounds feature articles. Each case presented should generate a dialogue about unusual or complicated disease processes and stimulate discussion about clinical reasoning. The initial case description should include the chief complaint and enough information to generate an initial differential diagnosis. Clinical details should alternate with input from generalists and from subspecialists as the case evolves and as the ultimate diagnosis is made. The case should culminate with a brief (750–1,000) summary of the key points of the case and of the ultimate diagnosis. Use of media, such as radiology studies, pathology specimens, or video clips as, is encouraged to complement the discussion.

  • Authors may come from any institution. The case may be one that was discussed in the hospital’s teaching rounds (many hospitals have sessions entitled Case Conference, CPC, Professorial Rounds, or something similar).
  • Manuscripts will be submitted for peer review, with acceptance contingent on positive peer reviews and input from the editorial board.
  • All cases should be real cases. Written consent from the family and from the providers who cared for the patient is required before a manuscript can be published. (The consent can be in the form of an email.) On submission, authors must attest that they have written consent from the family. Instances where there are extenuating circumstances in which family consent may be problematic will be handled on a case-by-case basis. If a case is published without family consent, enough elements should be changed so that the patient and family are not recognizable. If the case is too unique to be disguised, then those involved in the care of the patient cannot be authors, and the published paper must have no link to the institution where the case took place.
  • The requirements of local institutional review boards should be followed.
  • Authorship: All authors must fulfill the ICJME criteria for authorship.

Questions can be addressed to Rachel Moon, M.D., section editor for Diagnostic Dilemmas and Clinical Reasoning, at rymoon@virginia.edu.

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Ethics Rounds

Ethics Rounds present discussions of cases that illustrate ethical dilemmas in patient care, research, or administration. Authors who have a case that raises ethical issues and who want to submit a paper for Ethics Rounds should email Assistant Editor John Lantos (jlantos@cmh.edu).

The general submission instructions (including cover letter, title page, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements, also apply to Ethics Rounds).

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Family Partnerships

Abstract length: No abstract

Article length: 2,000 words or fewer

Author limit: Four (4) authors or fewer

Reference limit: 10 references or fewer

Pediatrics is interested in publishing articles that reflect the joint perspective of patients, families, and the health care professionals taking care of the family and child. These articles should be written collaboratively and reflect their shared thoughts about a topic related to children’s health care. Examples of topics that articles could address include shared decision-making, use of the Internet or other technologies to improve care, family-centered rounds, health care disparities, or issues related to medical education. These are just examples; the Executive Editorial Board would be willing to consider any relevant manuscript as long as it represents the voices of patients/families and healthcare providers. The manuscript should reflect a partnership amongst the authors.  

If an individual patient’s story is to be shared as a narrative, the article should not just focus on that patient’s story and what went right or wrong, but reflect a broad perspective so that the lessons learned can be generalizable to others.  The audience for these articles will primarily be health care professionals, but these articles will also be made free to the public so everyone can potentially benefit from reading the manuscript.

Specific points to consider: It would be acceptable for authors to write sections individually from their unique viewpoint. The article should contain a jointly written introduction and conclusion to ensure an overall collaborative voice.

Specific questions may be directed to Lewis First, MD, editor in chief of Pediatrics at lewis.first@uvm.edu.

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Monthly Feature

Abstract length: no abstract
Article length: 1,200 words or fewer

The Monthly Feature column offers an opportunity to gain insight into aspects of our field: past, present, and future. Alternating monthly, the column will provide ongoing updates from four standing groups: (1) Global Health; (2)  the Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics (COMSEP); (3) the Section on Pediatric Trainees (SOPT); and (4) the Historical Archives Advisory Committee for the AAP.

While many of the Monthly Features are invited, any queries or proposals should be directed to the editors of their respective columns: Jay Berkelhamer, MD (jberkelhamer@aap.net) for Global Health; Robert Dudas, MD  (rdudas@jhmi.edu) for COMSEP; Catherine Spaulding MD (SOPTpediatrics@aap.org) for SOPT; and Jeffrey Baker, MD (jeffrey.baker@dm.duke.edu) for the AAP Historical Archives Advisory Committee.

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Monthly Features.

 

 

SOPT Monthly Feature

This section publishes insightful updates and opinion articles on all aspects of pediatrics, written from the unique perspective of the trainee.

The goal of the editorial board of the AAP Section on Pediatric Trainees (SOPT) Monthly Feature is to work with trainee authors to develop thoughtful and timely articles related to pediatrics that appeal to everyone from medical students to well-seasoned practitioners. Topic content that focuses on training in pediatric medicine is preferred, but a range of other content areas will be considered. Topics should be relevant to students, residents and fellows, but also of general interest to the readership of Pediatrics. The issue being discussed must be uniquely viewed from the trainee’s perspective, not from that of the supervisor, educator or attending.

A few questions to consider when writing include: Why is the issue important? What is causing the problem to persist? How might it be corrected? How is this issue important to pediatricians in training? How might it affect pediatric medicine in the future? We are looking for authors who take a stand and support it with evidence from the literature, and for articles with an “edge”. A narrative thread that engages the reader and includes observations drawn from the author’s clinical and professional experiences is recommended.

Points To Consider:

  • The first author must be a resident, fellow, or medical student, but does not need to be a SOPT member. Collaborating authors at any career level are welcome.
  • One article will be published up to every 4 months as the Monthly Feature in Pediatrics.  High quality articles not selected for publication in Pediatrics will have other publication opportunities through SOPT.
  • Word Limit: 1,200 words
  • Reference Limit: 15 references
  • Author limit: 4 authors

Specific questions may be directed to Section Editor Catherine Spaulding, MD, at SOPTpediatrics@aap.org

 

 

Historical Perspectives Monthly Feature

The historical perspectives Monthly Feature is intended to attract concise and engaging historical articles of interest to clinicians. These articles are more akin to a commentary than an original article, and cannot be expected to provide the kind of in-depth analysis expected in professional historical journals. The content may draw from original research or develop a particular insight from existing scholarship. These articles are typically qualitative, and not divided into the conventional sections appropriate for original scientific contributions. Articles are peer reviewed by professionals with both medical and historical expertise.

Consider the following points as you develop your article:

  • Frame a clear question or central argument. Historical articles do not just recite chronologies or lists of persons and dates, they investigate a particular question and develop an argument, backed up by sources.
  • Set your article in historical context—in its own time and place. Don’t judge the past by the standards of the present. Secondary sources can be very helpful. Search for articles or books that can provide historical background. If you are not familiar with historical scholarship, see “resources” on the Pediatric History Center page of the American Academy of Pediatrics Web site.
  • Will your article be of interest to pediatricians (the main audience for Pediatrics)? Is the writing clear, organized, and easy to follow?
  • Is it original? Authors who have completed longer historical projects may wish to submit a short article related to a bigger project that may attract new readers to their other scholarship.
  • Are assertions in the paper accurate and supported with appropriate references? Most articles will have about 10 to 20 references. Follow the AMA Manual of Style. Specific references in longer sources may require page numbers to be noted in parentheses.

Primary sources (produced by participants or contemporaries) are preferred when possible. The goal is to provide enough information that a reader could independently confirm the assertions in the text. Secondary sources (books and reviews written by historians or physician-historians) should be cited to provide context (to frame the story in space and time) and scholarly background.

Specific questions may be directed to Section Editor Jeffrey P. Baker, MD, PhD, (jeffrey.baker@dm.duke.edu.)

 

 

Global Health Monthly Feature

  The global health Monthly Feature is intended to educate and engage clinicians who might not otherwise be immersed in the global health field. Submissions should provide information or perspective on issues and initiatives of international interest, including health, nutrition, and medical care in low- and middle-income countries. Articles may be broad or specific in focus, and should include appropriate references. Please direct questions to Jay Berkelhamer, MD (jberkelhamer@aap.net), section editor.

 

 

COMSEP Monthly Feature

COMSEP  (Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics) publishes articles describing initiatives and techniques that are best and/or new practices for educators who teach medical students and pediatric residents. Articles are solicited internally through COMSEP. If you have a question, please contact the current section editor Robert Dudas, MD  (rdudas@jhmi.edu).

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Pediatrics Perspectives

Abstract length: no abstract
Article length: 1,200 words max
Author limit: Three (3) authors or fewer
Figure/table: No more than one (1) figure or table allowed

Pediatrics Perspectives are unsolicited opinion pieces that focus on issues of policy, public health, or other research and clinical topics related to infant, child, and/or adolescent health. These articles should be 1200 words maximum, be written by no more than three authors and have no more than 7 references. Pediatrics Perspectives may include one figure or one table.

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Pediatrics Perspectives.

  • Download and view a sample Pediatrics Perspectives manuscript (PDF) here.

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Quality Report

Abstract: 250 words or fewer (structured: see Regular Articles)
Article: 3,000 words or fewer
Supplemental content: appropriate for figures, tables, multimedia, measurement tools  

Quality Reports are intended to add to our understanding of how to design and implement highly reliable systems of care that optimize the quality, safety, and value of health care delivered to children. 

What is suitable to submit as a Quality Report?

  • Submissions that describe sustainable, replicable initiatives evaluated using rigorous quality-improvement methods that include assessment of impact on costs will be given highest priority.
    • Submissions of initiatives undertaken by quality-improvement collaboratives or at multiple sites should include:
      • Uniform outcome assessment across sites
      • Description of site specific and overall collaborative findings
      • Key lessons learned (both positive and negative) from individual sites in relation to improvement approaches and outcomes
  • Priority will be given to those manuscripts that have multiple tests of change. Pre-post studies (i.e. without multiple tests of change) will be given low priority.
  • Reports of clinical trials to assess whether interventions are effective are better suited as Regular Articles. 
  • Reports of the development and testing of improvement-related tools to assess validity and reliability are better suited as Regular Articles. 
  • Pilot projects of interventions to improve quality of care may be acceptable if there are important lessons that can inform further quality-improvement efforts. 
  • If you are uncertain whether your manuscript is appropriate as a Quality Report, e-mail Dr. John Patrick T. Co, MD, MPH, FAAP (jco@partners.org).

What format should authors use when submitting a Quality Report?

Authors are expected to generally follow the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE 2.0) Guidelines for reporting their quality improvement initiatives. The SQUIRE guidelines are described in detail on the SQUIRE website (www.squire-statement.org). Articles that do  not adhere to SQUIRE guidelines will be considered if the authors provide a reasonable explanation as to why the improvement effort could not meet these requirements.

  • The general instructions to authors regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict-of-interest statements) also apply to Quality Reports.
  • Format the submission to follow the IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) format consistent with the rest of the journal. Authors should submit the checklist below.
  • The SQUIRE guidelines suggest specific areas that need to be addressed in each section, with recognition that every report will have different areas of emphasis. 

Authors should address the key aspects of SQUIRE 2.0 in their submissions, and include the following table in their submission.

Some key aspects of SQUIRE 2.0 for authors to consider include:

Manuscript Section

Key Considerations for Authors

Reported on Page #

Title

Include the condition and key outcome

 

Abstract

Sections should include background, methods, results, and conclusion. The results should summarize findings in relation to key specific aims

 

Introduction

Summarizes problem description, available knowledge, rationale, and specific aims.

 

Methods

 

 

Context

 

 

Intervention

 

 

Study of the Intervention

 

 

Measures

Each outcome, process, and balance measure must be described

If costs are included in the measures, the method of cost assessment and evaluation should be clear and rigorous.

 

Analysis

The authors should include description about how any run/control charts were developed and analyzed (e.g., rules governing changes in center lines and confidence intervals). 

If run charts or statistical process control was not used, the authors should explain why an alternative analytic approach was selected.

 

Ethical Considerations

Authors should review their institution’s guidelines around quality improvement projects.

If the authors did not obtain IRB approval and/or formal IRB exemption after review, they must state how the project described in their submission met criteria for not being reviewed by their institution’s IRB.

 

Results

Describes the actual course of the intervention, including contextual elements.

Results should be described in relation to specific aims, and be presented in the same order as in the introduction and methods.

Describes the actual course of the intervention, including contextual elements, as well as changes in process and outcomes (including balance measures and any cost assessment). 

The results should include a description of and interpretation of any run/control chart findings, specifically whether special cause variation was noted or not.

 

 

 

 

Discussion

 

 

Summary

Summarize findings in relation to specific aims.

 

Interpretation

Were there specific intervention(s) related to improvement?

How do the findings compare to findings from other publications?

How were the findings compared to what authors expected, and why?

 

Limitations

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

Figures

Run and/or control charts are helpful for illustrating changes in measures over time.

Run and/or control charts should include annotations that show when interventions were implemented.

 

 

The general instructions to authors regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict-of-interest statements) also apply to Quality Reports.

  • Download and view a sample Quality Reports manuscript (PDF) here.

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Review Article, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (structured or unstructured, depending on review type)
Article length: 4,000 words or fewer

Review Articles combine and/or summarize data from the knowledge base of a topic. Preference is given to systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clearly stated questions over traditional narrative reviews of a topic.  Both types of review require an abstract; the abstract of a narrative review may be unstructured (no headings, run in a single paragraph). See below for abstracts of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Review Articles.

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

Reports of systematic reviews and meta-analyses should use the PRISMA statement (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) as a guide, and include a completed PRISMA checklist and flow diagram to accompany the main text. Blank templates of the checklist and flow diagram can be downloaded from the PRISMA Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/statement.htm).
Structured abstracts for systematic reviews are recommended. Headings should include: Context, Objective, Data Sources, Study Selection, Data Extraction, Results, Limitations, and Conclusions (see Iverson et al1[pp22-23]).

  • Download and view a sample Narrative Review manuscript (PDF) here.
  • Download and view a sample Systematic Review/Meta-analysis manuscript (PDF) here.

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Special Article

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph)
Article length: 4,000 words or fewer

Special Articles reflect topics or issues of relevance to pediatric health care that do not conform to a traditional study format. Special Articles may address broad social and ethical issues, scientific methodology, or other scholarly topics, and may include reports from consensus committees and working groups. These articles should not include specific guidelines or recommendations for practice. Guidelines and recommendations from groups outside of the AAP must be approved through the AAP and may be published at the discretion of the AAP in the Academy’s dedicated section of the journal (see below).

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) apply to Special Articles.

  • Download and view a sample Special Article manuscript (PDF) here.

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State-of-the-Art Review Article

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph)
Article length: 4,000 words or fewer

State-of-the-Art Review Articles provide a comprehensive and scholarly overview of an important clinical subject with a principle focus on developments in the past 5 years. State-of-the-Art Articles are usually invited.  If you are interested in submitting a State-of-the-Art Review, please email Associate Editor Dr. Steven Zeichner(zeichner@virginia.edu) and copy Publications Editor Mark Plemmons (mplemmons@aap.org).

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to State-of-the-Art Reviews.

  • Download and view a sample State-of-the-Art Review manuscript (PDF) here.

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"From the American Academy of Pediatrics"- For AAP Use Only

 

The editorial process and manuscript selection for publication in Pediatrics are separate from the processes and materials that are produced or endorsed by the AAP. These materials are published in print and online in a visually distinct section of the journal. AAP Clinical Practice Guidelines, Policy Statements, Clinical Reports and other AAP-produced or endorsed materials that are intended to help guide practice are highly valued by membership, and are published in this section of the journal at the sole discretion of the AAP. Content produced or endorsed by the AAP is reviewed and approved outside of the Pediatrics editorial process.

Do not select an AAP Clinical Report, AAP Policy Statement, or other AAP article type for your submission. These are reserved for internal AAP use only.

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Cover Letter

The cover letter serves to assure the editors that the article and the authors meet the conditions of publication.  A brief paragraph that provides any additional information that may be useful to the editors is welcome, but keep in mind that the need for a long cover letter may indicate that the article does not speak for itself.  Reviewers will not see the cover letter; cover letters are not a Title Page.

All authors are required to affirm the following in their cover letter (in Step Five: Details & Comments as described here) before their manuscript is considered:

  • That the manuscript is being submitted only to Pediatrics, that it will not be submitted elsewhere while under consideration, that it has not been published elsewhere, and, should it be published in Pediatrics, that it will not be published elsewhere—either in similar form or verbatim—without permission of the editors. These restrictions do not apply to abstracts or to press reports of presentations at scientific meetings.
  • That all authors are responsible for reported research.
  • That all authors have participated in the concept and design; analysis and interpretation of data; drafting or revising of the manuscript, and that they have approved the manuscript as submitted.

If a manuscript uses the same or similar data contained in previously published articles, the authors must state this in the cover letter (and provide citations to the related or possibly duplicative materials).

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Getting Started

1. Go to Manuscript Central (https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/pediatrics) and sign in, or click the “Register here” option if you are a first-time user.
2. Sign in and select “Author Center.”
3. After logging in, click the blue star displaying “Click here to submit a new manuscript.”

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Submitting Your Manuscript

You must complete each step to submit your manuscript into Manuscript Central. Use proper capitalization - Do not use all CAPS, or all lowercase, or HTML. Click on the “Save and Continue” button on each screen to save your work and advance to the screen.

Step One: Type, Title, and Abstract. Select your article type and enter the title, short title, and abstract. Review your article type earlier in these guidelines for further details on abstracts. The Table of Contents Summary and the What’s Known/What’s Added summaries are required for Regular Articles only (if this does not apply, input “n/a” to skip).

For published articles, the Table of Contents Summary will appear under the author names in the table of contents to give the reader a brief insight into what the article is about. It should entice the reader to read the full article. Summarize your article in 25 words or less. For example: "Through linkage of state Medicaid and Child Protective Services databases, this study captures similarities and differences in health care expenditures based on a history of child maltreatment."

Step Two: Attributes. Enter the appropriate keywords/categories for your submission.

Step Three: Authors & Institutions. All authors must be listed here. Before adding a new author, check to see if the author is already in the database (enter the author's e-mail address and click "Find"). It is important that these e-mails be up-to-date, since copyright forms and other important correspondence will sent to them if the article is provisionally accepted. If the author is found, their information will be automatically filled out for you. For an author that is not found, enter the information, then click "Add to My Authors."

Be sure your author listing is correct. Except in instances where the editorial office has determined that a person does not qualify for authorship, Pediatrics does not allow changes to the author order, including adding or removing authors from a paper or any subsequent revisions.

Step Four: Reviewers & Editors. To indicate any preferred and non-preferred reviewers, enter the reviewer's information and click the appropriate designation button.

Step Five: Details & Comments (with Cover Letter). Input or attach your cover letter here, including all required affirmations. This step also allows you to check a box indicating that, should your manuscript not be accepted by Pediatrics, you would like it transferred to Hospital Pediatrics for consideration.

Transfers to Hospital Pediatrics: If your manuscript is not accepted by Pediatrics and the editors feel the topic is appropriate for Hospital Pediatrics, you will receive an email indicating that your manuscript is ready to transfer, along with additional instructions on how to proceed. Please note that if your manuscript has been reviewed by Pediatrics reviewers, those reviews will transfer to Hospital Pediatrics along with your manuscript. Your manuscript will undergo additional peer review by Hospital Pediatrics reviewers and editors. If you have any questions about this transfer, please contact the editorial office at PediatricsEditorial@aap.org.

Step Six: File Upload. In this step, you will be prompted to upload your files.

To designate the order in which your files appear, use the drop-downs in the "order" column. The first file should be your manuscript in .RTF or .DOC format (this includes the Title Page(s), followed by the Contributors' Statement Page, a copy of the Abstract, the body of the article, any Acknowledgments, References, and any legends for tables/figures/etc. Do not split your manuscript into multiple files.) Include any other files below your manuscript file.

Step Seven: Review & Submit. Review your submission (in PDF and HTML formats) before sending it to the editors. Click the “Submit” button when you are done reviewing.

You may halt a submission at any step and save it to submit later. After submission, you will receive an email confirmation. You can log-on to Manuscript Central any time to check the status of your manuscript. The editors will inform you via email once a decision has been made.

 

Open Access

Pediatrics has a 12 month embargo on articles (followed by a 4 year open access period) and does not allow articles to be opened for Creative Commons or similar licenses. If your funding body has open access requirements, please contact the Editorial Office prior to submission.

 

 

Copyright Forms

At the time of provisional acceptance, all authors will receive instructions for submitting an online copyright form. No paper will be scheduled for an issue and move onto production until all authors have completed their copyright forms.

We do not accept copyright forms via fax, e-mail, or regular mail unless a technical problem with the online author account cannot be resolved. Every effort should be made for authors to use the online copyright system. Corresponding authors can log in to the submission system at any time to check on the status of any co-author’s copyright form.

All accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of the American Academy of Pediatrics and may not be published elsewhere, in whole or in part, without written permission from the Academy (with certain exceptions: authors retain certain rights including the right to republish their work in books and other scholarly collections). Authors who were employees of the United States Government at the time the work was done should so state on the copyright form. Articles authored by federal employees remain in the public domain.

Note: Pediatrics cannot accept any copyright that has been altered, revised, amended, or otherwise changed. Our original electronic copyright form must be used as is.

 

Disclosure Forms

At the time of provisional acceptance, all authors are required to submit a disclosure form. Pediatrics adheres to ICMJE policy and uses an online disclosure e-form in order for authors to do so. The collection of forms is automated within the online submission system. Note: Pediatrics cannot accept any disclosure that has been altered, revised, amended, or otherwise changed. Our original electronic disclosure form must be used as is.

 

Ordering Reprints

Reprint order forms will be sent to the corresponding author. If you are not the corresponding author and wish to order reprints, you may either contact the corresponding author or use the contact info below. Reprints are available at any time after publication. However, reprints ordered after publication may cost more. Delivery of reprints is usually 4 to 6 weeks after publication.

To order author reprints, please contact:

Lori Laughman
Reprint Account Manager - Author Reprints
Office Telephone: Call: 717-632-8448
E-mail: lori.laughman@sheridan.com

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Reader Comments

Pediatrics welcomes reader comments on published articles. To submit a comment, click on the "Comments" tab that appears with each article, then click on "Submit a Comment." Comments submitted via e-mail or regular mail will not be considered for posting or returned.

The editors review all comments submitted online; comments are not peer-reviewed. The decision regarding whether to post a comment is at the sole discretion of the editors; all editorial decisions are final. Once a comment has been posted on the website, you will not have the right to have it removed or edited. Pediatrics shall, however, be able to remove any comment at its discretion.

Note: Comments are online responses only. They are not published, nor cited in Medline/PubMed.

Be sure to follow all of the consideration criteria below; you will not be able to modify your comment after submission.

 

Consideration Criteria for Posting of Reader Comments:

  • To ensure timely discussion, comments are limited to articles published within the previous 6 months.
  • The editors will consider posting comments that contribute substantially to the discussion of the original article to which the reader is responding. All editorial decisions are final.
  • We will consider posting comments from all readers regardless of professional background. Decisions about posting are made based on the content, not the professional background of the respondent.
  • Pediatrics does not allow multiple comment submissions from the same reader for a particular article
  • Comments must be in English and not exceed 500 words, not including references.
  • Comments must have no more than 3 authors.
  • Comments must have no more than 5 references.
  • Comments cannot include web links. We will remove any web links from responses chosen for posting.
  • Pediatrics will not post comments that are, or appear in the opinion of the editor to be obscene, libelous, incomprehensible, defamatory, or rude; that include advertising, address personal health questions about the respondent or family members; or that give personal health information about identifiable individuals.
  • In general, we do not edit reader comments prior to or after posting. The editors may, at their discretion, modify submitted comments either before or after posting the comment.

 

How to Submit Reader Comments for Consideration

1. Locate the article online using the “Current Issue” or “eArchives” links.

2. To respond to the article, click the “Comments” tab. Pediatrics only allows one comment per author per article.

3. Click on the "Submit a Comment" bar.

4. Compose your comment and add your author information. (Note that no HTML tags are allowed.  Lines and paragraphs are automatically recognized. The <br /> line break, <p> paragraph and </p> close paragraph tags are inserted automatically. If paragraphs are not recognized simply add a couple of blank lines.)

5. Click "Submit".

 

How to View Comments

1. To read comments on an article that have been posted, click on the "Comments" tab.

2. Recent comments also located on the home page in the "Recent Comments" box.

 

How to Cite a Comment

Example:

Quartermain, Michael D., Prenatal Diagnosis Data [comment], Pediatrics (October 27, 2015),
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/136/2/e378.comments#prenatal-diagnosis-data (accessed November 2, 2015).

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Letters to the Editor

All Letters to the Editor must first be submitted as online comments (and must conform to comment requirements). Selected comments may then be chosen for publication in the indexed edition of Pediatrics as “Letters to the Editor.” The editors may choose to abridge and edit a comment prior to publication as a Letter to the Editor in Pediatrics without notifying or seeking approval from the author. Only these selected responses will be cited in MedLine.

At the time of provisional acceptance, the comment author will receive instructions for submitting an online copyright form. No comment will be scheduled for an issue’s Letters to the Editor section and move onto production until the copyright form is complete.

Submission Checklist

License agreement

Have you read the license agreement and are you able to sign it on behalf of all the authors?

Collection Submissions

If you were invited to submit your paper to a PLOS Special Collection, have you reviewed the terms of submission and publication charges for PLOS Special Collections, and are you prepared to adhere to them?

Cover letter

Have you prepared a cover letter explaining why you consider this manuscript suitable for publication in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases?

Scope

Does your paper fall into the scope of PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases? If the disease in your paper is not listed in the scope, have you sent a Presubmission Inquiry to ask the editors whether the paper is suitable?

Author list

Are all authors aware of, and do they approve of, the submission of the manuscript, its content, authorship, and the order of authorship?

Do you have the following information for all authors?

The corresponding author must provide an ORCID iD at the time of submission by entering it in the user profile in the submission system. For more information about how to register for an ORCID iD and link it to Editorial Manager, watch this short video.

Funding

Have you prepared a statement indicating who funded the study, and the role of the funding agency in conducting the study and in preparing the manuscript? You will be asked to enter this into the relevant section of the submission form.

Human and animal research

If your article includes human or animal research, have you read and followed our policies on human subjects research and animal research, which contain further information on the Declaration of Helsinki and The use of non-human primates in research (PDF)?

For research involving vertebrates please note, as part of the ethics statement, the guidelines followed and the committee that approved of the methods employed.

Do you have a copy of the statement from the relevant institutional review board or ethics committee indicating their approval of the research reported in the manuscript which you can upload as supporting information?

If your submission contains content that could identify individual patients (such as photos, descriptions, pedigrees), we request that you provide copies of informed consent forms from those patients as supporting information. Have the patients been informed that under Open Access this published information can be used for any lawful purpose?

Acknowledgments

Have you confirmed that anyone named in the acknowledgments section agrees to being so named?

Clinical trials

If reporting a clinical trial have you provided the registration number, do you have a copy of the protocol that you can upload as supporting information, and are you reporting it according to the CONSORT guidelines? Have you completed and attached the CONSORT checklist?

Manuscript organization

Does your paper follow the organization guidelines outlined in the submission guidelines?

Systematic reviews

If your manuscript comprises a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, are you reporting it according to the PRISMA Guidelines? Have you included a PRISMA checklist and flow diagram?

Reporting guidelines

If the study describes a diagnostic technique, are you reporting it according to the STARD guidelines?

If reporting an epidemiological study are you reporting it according the STROBE requirements?

If your study includes microarray data, are you reporting it according to the MIAME guidelines and have you deposited the data in a public database?

Statistical methods

Have you included detailed descriptions of the statistical methods employed in your study and do you provide a measure of error in any data reported?

Abbreviations

Have non-standard abbreviations been defined in the text?

Line numbers

Have you added line numbers to your manuscript?

Nomenclature

Have you used standard nomenclature?

SI values

Have you used SI values?

File format

Is the manuscript file in DOC or RTF? If you prepared your article using LaTeX, please refer to our LaTeX guidelines for details about LaTeX files.

Figures

Have your original figures been created as EPS or TIFF files in a high enough resolution (300 ppi – 600 ppi) to provide for adequate review? Please note that individual files should not exceed 10 MB in size.

If your manuscript is ready for publication, do your figures conform to the figure guidelines? 

Related manuscripts

Are related manuscripts by any of the authors submitted or in press elsewhere? If so, are you prepared to provide PDFs as supporting information?

Suggested editors

Have you identified potential editors who would be qualified to handle your submission? See the full Editorial Board list for more information, being mindful of any potential competing interests. 

Suggested reviewers

Have you identified at least four potential reviewers whose email addresses you can provide? Please ensure that you are aware of our competing interests policy when making these suggestions, and do not suggest colleagues who may have any of these conflicts.

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